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Traditional ballet exercises are not sufficient for the ballet students who are trained professional at the conservatory to develop balletic strength and balance components and the implementation of different training and exercise programs is a necessity in improving the performances of the dancers at the present time.


The purpose of this research was to examine with pretest- posttest the supplemental specific strength and balance training in addition to classical ballet class in ballet students balance, isokinetic, isometric strength and ballet performance.

Methodology and Methods:

Before starting the research, approval was obtained from the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of Mersin University. İn the following process voluntary consent forms were signed with the necessary permission from the students and parents who agreed to participate in the study.

30 female ballet students with a mean age of 11 from Mersin University State Conservatory Ballet Department participated in the study were randomly assigned to 15 experimental and 15 control groups.

Before starting the study, both groups anthropometric measurements (Body weight, Lean Body Mass, Body mass index, Body Fat Percentage) the isokinetic (plantar, dorsiflexion, knee, hip, upper extremity) and isometric (knee, upper extremity) strength values, the motion analysis of the 5 ballet-specific performance components ( passé, front developé relevelent, sideward developé relevelent, arabesque, pennché) and pedobarographic measurements were determined in the Biomechanics and Physical Performance Laboratory of Mersin University Physical Education and Sports School. Anthropometric measurements of the ballet students participated in the study was determined with Tanita MA 418 Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and length measurements were determined with Holtain brand “Stadiometer”. Humac Norm Cybex Isokinetic Dynamometer”was used for isokinetic and isometric strenght measurements. Kinovea video motion analysis program was used to interpret and analyze the ballet-specific performance components and RSscan International Lammerdries 27 B-2250 Olen Belgium walking platform was used to measure the balance components.

İn the study the control group performed the traditional ballet lessons 1.5 hours 5 days a week for eight weeks. In addition to 1.5 hours 5 days a week for eight weeks, the experimental group received balance and strength training 3 days a week for 2 hours in 8 weeks.

Analysis of Results:

In order to compare the mean of the two groups mean and standard deviation and minimum and maximum values ​​of properties were used for data analysis. When using Student’s t test statistic to compare the two groups (study-control) averages of measurement parameters, While “Student's t test” statistic was used to compare the two groups (experimental-control) averages of measurement parameters, the test statistics used for the difference between the two groups of means (before-after) of the measurement parameters were; “Paired Samples Tests”. Statistical significance level of the data was taken as p <0.05.” ”, NY|New York software and  MedCalc” statistical package program were used to evaluate the data.


After eight week specific strength and balance training, there was a significant increase in isokinetic left dorsiflexion, left plantar flexion significantly decreased in the control group, significant increase in right / left knee extension in the experimental group, significant decrease in right / left flexion measurements in control group, significant increase in the right / left hip extension in both groups measurements was observed in posttest measurements. There was no statistically significant difference in upper extremity measurements. In the isometric measurements, there was an increase in the knee right flexion, left extension in the experimental group and increase in the upper extremity flexion and extension measurements in both groups (p<,05). The percentage of rearfoot decreased, midfoot and rearfoot impulses increased in both groups and surface area percentage of midfoot increased in both groups in pedobarographic measurements (p< ,05). The difference is statistically significant between the averages of sum of the maximum forces zones total of the right / left legs (p< ,05). Total of five Basic Movement balance duration mean difference between the groups and the difference between the average of pre- posttest values right/left in both groups is statistically significant. Total of five Basic Movement angle of hip and knee right in the experimental group and right/left in the control groups supporting leg angle degree difference between the mean values is statistically significant(p< ,05). Supplemental specific strength and balance training in addition to classical ballet provided increase balance duration and strength values in the experimental group.

When we gathered the research results general evaluation of the study, isokinetic measurements of 8 weeks strength and balance training, experimental group included knee right and left extension, hip right and left extension, upper extremity extension and ısometric measurements made a positive contribution to the left knee flexion, right flexion, upper extremity flexion and extension values ​​compared to the control group. There was no positive effect on plantar and dorsiflexion strenght values.

When the impulse percentages are evaluated in general, it is seen that the percentages of posterior impulses decrease and the percentages of middle and especially anterior impulses increase in both groups. Although there is a variation between dance movements, it is thought that the burden on the metatarsophalangeal joints is considerably higher, since the dancers spend a lot of time on the forefoot. (Jarvis, Kulig, 2016). Although there was no significant difference in both groups, the increase in angle values ​​in 5 basic movements during the traditional ballet lesson exercises shifted the balance center towards the anterior region of the body due to the characteristics of the movements.

The contact area percentages are evaluated in general, it is seen that the contact area percentage values ​​on the middle foot have increased in both groups. Pedobarographic analyzes of ballet have been studied in a small number of fields. Therefore, it is similar to our study that all 20 professional ballerinas in a study that analyzes the Plié movement close to our study showed a high degree of stabilization at midfoot (Gontijo, Candotti, Feijó Gdos, Ribeiro, Loss,2015).

This is important to prevent injuries in the ballet and to ensure the correct foot position for the ballet posture and the significant increase in pretest-posttest analyzes due to traditional ballet studies is a positive situation for our group of students. This situation is important in terms of preventing the injuries and state the correct foot position in terms of ballet posture.

Eight-week balance and strength training “five basic movements” motion analysis angle degree measurements according to the experimental and control groups, the experimental group ıt has provided the minimum positive effect.

The balance times of the experimental group were considerably increased. Considering the evidence revealed by the researches, it is wise to consider the participation of dancers in fitness trainings as an aid to technical studies and performance as well as a way to reduce the risk of injury (Russell, 2013). It is stated that ballet dancers have better balance than other sport branches (Costal, Ferreirall and Feliciol, 2013) and they can compensate for the factors causing tiredness in balance due to the high level of professional specific motor trainings  (Hopper, Grisbrook, Newnham and Edwards, 2014). Weight training can increase muscle strength without causing hypertrophy due to neuromuscular adaptations. Without contradiction basic artistic and physical performance requirements and aesthetic visual, ıt has emerged in studies increasing muscle strength can provide progress and improvement in dance performance (Twitchett, Koutedakis and Wyon, 2009).

Therefore, rather significant positive differences in balance stabilization time of the experimental group with the increase of strength values as a result of 8 weeks of strength and balance training from the sum of all 5 basic ballet movements, the fact that balance training was carried out on a playful ground on bosu ball revealed significant improvements in terms of performing movements on fixed ground in addition. The necessity to include strength and balance trainings besides traditional education, the improvement in muscle strength and endurance has positive effects on dance performance (Brown, Wells, Schade, Smith and Fehling, 2007; Koutedakis, Hukam, Metsios, Nevill, Giakas, Jamurtas and Myszkewycz, 2007) required for performances involving explosive maneuvering such as jumps, it is also vital for balance and posture control in various ballet-specific positions such as arabesque and attitude like 5 basic movements in our study (Bennell, Khan, Matthews, Gruyter, Cook, Holzer and Wark, 1999). In addition, it can be said that balance performance in ballet can be improved faster than strenght performance.


Key Words: Ballet, Balance, Strength, Training


Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Zekai PEHLEVAN, Mersin University, School of Physical Education and Sports / Department of Physical Education and Sports Teaching, MERSIN.

Bibliographic references:

Jarvis, D.N., Kulig, K.(2016). Kinematic and kinetic analyses of the toes in dance movements. Journal of Sports Sciences.34,(17),1612-8.

Gontijo, K. N., Candotti, C. T., Feijó Gdos, S., Ribeiro, L. P., Loss, J. F. (2015). Kinematic evaluation of the classical ballet step "plié". Journal of Dance Medicine and Science. 19,(2),70-6.

Russell, J. R. (2013). Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives. Journal of Sports Medicine. 4, 199–210.

CostaI, M. S. S., FerreiraII, A. S., FelicioI, L. R. ( 2013 ). Static and dynamic balance in ballet dancers: a literature review. Fisioterapia e Pesquisa,20(3).

Hopper, D.M., Grisbrook, T.L., Newnham, P.J., Edwards, D.J. (2014). The effects of vestibular stimulation and fatigue on postural control in classical ballet dancers. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science18(2),67-73.

Twitchett, E., Angioi, M., Koutedakis, Y., Wyon, M. (2009). Video analysis of classical ballet performance . Journal of Dance Medicine and Science . 13,(4),124-8.

Brown, A. C.,  Wells, T. J., Schade, M. L., Smith,  D. L.,  Fehling, P.C. (2007). Effects  of plyometric training versus traditional weight training on strength, power, and aesthetic jumping ability in female collegiate dancers. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science. 11,(2), 38-44.

Koutedakıs, Y., Hukam, H., Metsıos, G., Nevıll, A., Gıakas, G., Jamurtas, A., Myszkewycz, L. (2007). The effects of three months of aerobic and strength training on selected performance-and fitness-related parameters in modern dance students. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 3, (21), 808-812.

Bennell, K., Khan, K. M., Matthews, B., De Gruyter, M., Cook, E., Holzer, K., Wark, J. D. (1999). Hip and ankle range of motion and hip muscle strength in young female ballet dancers and controls. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 33,(5),340–346.